Business Encyclopedia

A

Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA)
Audited Financial Statement
Annual General Meeting (AGM)
Annual Report (AR)
Articles of Association
Apostille

B

BizFile
Business Grants Portal
Business Profile

C

Central Provident Fund (CPF)
Certificate Of Residence (COR)
Common Reporting Standard
Common Seal
Companies Act (Cap. 50)
Company Constitution
Company Secretary
Company Stamp
CorpPass

D

Dependant’s Pass
Directors’ Resolution in Writing (DRIW)
Dividend
Dormant Company
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA)
Due Diligence

E

Electronic Register of Members (eROM)
Employment Pass (EP)
EntrePass
Enterprise Development Grant (EDG)
Estimated Chargeable Income (ECI)
Exempt Private Company (EPC)

F

Financial Year End (FYE)
Form C-S/ C
Form C-S (Lite)
Fund Accounting

G

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

H

Hedge Fund

I

Import/Export License
Income Tax
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS)
Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS)
Interim Dividend
IR21 Form

J

K

Know Your Customer (KYC)
Knowledge Capital

L

Letter of Consent (LOC)
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
Limited Partnership (LP)
Liquidation (Court Order/Compulsory)
Liquidation (Voluntary)
Long Term Visit Pass (LTVP)

M

Ministry of Manpower (MOM)
MTI

N

Nominee Director
Nominee Shareholder
National Registration Identity Card (NIRC)

O

P

Partnership
Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA)
Personalised Employment Pass (PEP)
Private limited company
Productivity Solutions Grant (PSG)
Permanent Resident (PR)

Q

Quickbook Accounting

R

Register of Charges
Register of Nominee Director
Register of Registrable Controllers (RORC)
Registered Office Address

S

S Pass
Share
Small Company
Sole Proprietor
Special Employment Credit
Sponsored Employment Pass
Striking Off

T

Trademark
Temporary Bridging Loan
Temporary Employment Credit (TEC)

U

UEN
Unaudited financial statement
Undischarged Bankrupt

V

Variable Capital Company (VCC)
Venture Capitalist (VC)

W

Wage Credit Scheme
Withholding Tax (Section 45)

X

XBRL
Xero

Y

Year of Assessment (YA)

Z

Zero Rated Supplies
Zero-rised Financial Statement

Share

A share is a measurement of ownership in a company. Companies raise funds from the market by issuing shares or debentures, which can be bought by individuals or other companies. The owners of the shares are called Shareholders. For a private limited company, the shareholders are generally the founders of the company. If the company wants to raise its capital, it can do so through private investors. A public company, on the other hand, would need to issue an initial public offering (IPO) to facilitate the trading of shares in the stock exchange.

Types of Shares

Every share gives the shareholder the right to a company’s profit or loss. Shares have different participative rights and may rank differently in preference when a company undergoes liquidation. There are mainly two types of shares:

Ordinary Shares

Ordinary shares are the most common. The benefits the shareholders enjoy are an equal share in the profits in the form of dividends, voting rights of one per share, and a share of the capital gains when the company winds up its operations. Some companies further categorize ordinary shares to create a certain difference in the class of the shareholders. These are called Alphabet Shares as the classes are divided into Class A, Class B, Class C, and more.

Preference Shares

Preference shareholders are given preference over ordinary shareholders when it comes to dividend distribution and liquidation. But they usually don’t have any voting rights or get a share in the capital gains like the ordinary shareholders. Every company decides the rights and benefits of preferential shares based on their requirement, which is mentioned in its Constitution or resolutions passed during meetings. They are normally issued at a higher price compared to an ordinary share due to the privileges they hold.