Business Encyclopedia

A

Accounting and Corporate Regulatory Authority (ACRA)
Audited Financial Statement
Annual General Meeting (AGM)
Annual Report (AR)
Articles of Association
Apostille

B

BizFile
Business Grants Portal
Business Profile

C

Central Provident Fund (CPF)
Certificate Of Residence (COR)
Common Reporting Standard
Common Seal
Companies Act (Cap. 50)
Company Constitution
Company Secretary
Company Stamp
CorpPass

D

Dependant’s Pass
Directors’ Resolution in Writing (DRIW)
Dividend
Dormant Company
Double Taxation Agreement (DTA)
Due Diligence

E

Electronic Register of Members (eROM)
Employment Pass (EP)
EntrePass
Enterprise Development Grant (EDG)
Estimated Chargeable Income (ECI)
Exempt Private Company (EPC)

F

Financial Year End (FYE)
Form C-S/ C
Form C-S (Lite)
Fund Accounting

G

Goods and Services Tax (GST)

H

Hedge Fund

I

Import/Export License
Income Tax
Initial Public Offering (IPO)
Inland Revenue Authority of Singapore (IRAS)
Intellectual Property Office of Singapore (IPOS)
Interim Dividend
IR21 Form
IR8A Form

J

K

Know Your Customer (KYC)
Knowledge Capital

L

Letter of Consent (LOC)
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
Limited Liability Partnership (LLP)
Limited Partnership (LP)
Liquidation (Court Order/Compulsory)
Liquidation (Voluntary)
Long Term Visit Pass (LTVP)

M

Ministry of Manpower (MOM)
MTI

N

Nominee Director
Nominee Shareholder
National Registration Identity Card (NIRC)
Notice of Assessment (NOA)

O

P

Partnership
Personal Data Protection Act (PDPA)
Personalised Employment Pass (PEP)
Private limited company
Productivity Solutions Grant (PSG)
Permanent Resident (PR)

Q

Quickbook Accounting

R

Register of Charges
Register of Nominee Director
Register of Registrable Controllers (RORC)
Registered Office Address

S

S Pass
Share
SingPass
Small Company
Sole Proprietor
Special Employment Credit
Sponsored Employment Pass
Striking Off

T

Trademark
Temporary Bridging Loan
Temporary Employment Credit (TEC)

U

UEN
Unaudited financial statement
Undischarged Bankrupt

V

Variable Capital Company (VCC)
Venture Capitalist (VC)

W

Wage Credit Scheme
Withholding Tax (Section 45)

X

XBRL
Xero

Y

Year of Assessment (YA)

Z

Zero Rated Supplies
Zero-rised Financial Statement

Articles of Association

The internal regulations by which a company is controlled are outlined in the articles of association. They define the rights, authorities, and responsibilities of the company’s stakeholders. Everything from the conduct of board and general meetings to the appointment of directors is governed by the company’s articles.

Articles of organisation are required for businesses limited by guarantee and unlimited firms, although they are optional for companies limited by shares. 

Articles of Association only apply to companies in Singapore that were incorporated before 3rd January 2016. Since then, companies incorporated after that time have to file a merged document of the Memorandum of Understanding and the Article of Association (M&AA), currently referred to as the Company Constitution.

The Articles of Association’s Impact

The articles of association serve as agreements between the firm and its members, as well as among the members. As a result, each member has a personal right to have the articles of association followed.

It’s worth noting that the articles of association are open to the public. Members of businesses limited by shares may choose to have a shareholder agreement in addition to the articles of association. A shareholder agreement is a separate, private contract between the members of a corporation.

Because some facts can be mentioned in the shareholder agreement rather than the articles of association, it helps to keep critical corporate details out of the public sight.